The Pathology of Dirofilariasis in Humans

Fact: The pathology of Dirofilariasis in humans has never even been studied. Because there is no test for the disease it is near impossible to know who even has this disease, so it is currently impossible to gather enough patients together to create a proper cohort study of the disease. In fact, nowhere in the published archives is it even identified that an Occult Infection is the default state of the disease in humans. If they can’t even get this very fundamental fact correct then it is quite obvious that nobody has paid any attention to this disease in the human population.

The only detectable manifestation of this disease that can possibly occur prior to a successful occult form of this disease is the cutaneous skin nodule. When a person is first bitten and if this L3 stage filaria does not find the incision point made by the vector insect, it may try to burrow into some other orifice on the surface of the skin and likely fail to penetrate successfully into the bloodstream. Or they may find the incision and still become trapped and isolated by the host immune system, and be forced to live in this isolated nodule environment sealed off from the host immune system. All other instances of filaria become a part of the occult infection first before ever traveling to any other areas of the body where they might later become visible to a doctor in some way. If a filaria is not found at the original site of the infection, then it is part of a successful occult infection.

Can we actually prove there has been no proper study?

Yes. A simple search on Google Scholar with the right search terms will return zero results thus demonstrating that there is a complete lack of any clinical research in humans other than a few token case studies which look only at manifestations of the disease which are visible to a doctor. These cases are a statistically insignificant minority of the total number of infections.

To verify this is in fact the case, please go to and do a few quick searches or click on the links below to perform the search.

Do enter the quotes in the above queries but not the [ ]. Each query above will return all the exact matches before any partial matches are returned. After each search result above is returned you should quickly scan those top results for any record on that first page that contains every search term you provided. Count them. It’s zero. Feel free to try other search terms as the last parameter just to prove to yourself that the Google Scholar search engine is actually working correctly.

You may find one paper from Russia which says:

All cases of human dirofilariasis presenting to our institution
were recorded. The diagnosis of dirofilariasis in humans was based
on the microscopy of removed parasites or their fragments and
morphological and histopathological features.

So, the above reference is only about people who had a previous nodule removed by a doctor. The papers conclusion was:

Conclusions: The particularly high prevalence of Dirofilaria infection in professional dogs used in the
police force and armed forces poses a particular problem, since these dogs may serve as
epidemiologically important amplifiers within the region of the former Soviet Union.

So, there can be no real experts on the topic of Human Dirofilariasis Pathology. Anyone that even claims to understand this disease in humans is simply not telling the truth, because the pathology in humans has never truly been studied. Out of sight, out of mind.

Until there is a verified clinical test developed for occult infections in humans we will never be able to study this disease properly.

There can be no diagnosis, no statistics, and thus will be no money that is required to develop a proper clinical research study for this disease. Until that time it remains impossible to truly declare that this disease is not a problem simply due to the lack of evidence. If you don’t ever look you will never find it, no matter how blatantly obvious the problem is.