Vectors Of Transmission

While the major vector of transmission attributed to the spread of Dirofilariasis in all the journal and web literature is the Mosquito there are still many more that the medical books and online resources do not even mention. It is important to realize that any arthropod that can carry this disease shoud be properly attributed to the spread of the disease, because otherwise the threat that this disease poses to the human population can not be well understood. Research is required to properly assess each and ever vector with its potential for disease transmission, so below we list all known vectors that are currently able to spread the disease and we hope that in the future the other medical resources will give proper respect and attribution.

Ceratopogonidae or commonly known as the biting-midge or noseeums. [1][2]

Culicidae The mosquito is the well known vector of many diseases, including Dirofilaria. (Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Ochlerotatus, Cx quinciafasiatus, Ae. polynesiensis, Oc. taeniorhynchus, Cx. pipiens, Ae. ochcaspius, Ae. vexans, Cx. theileri, Ae. albopictus)

Simuliidae The BlackFly [3][4][5][6][7] also known as the buffalo gnat is known to have 2,200 species. While an individual fly can only carry about three L3 stage filaria they are quite prolific in numbers. These are also well known to carry a very similar disease in Africa called river-blindness.

Stomoxys calcitrans Also known as the Stable Fly can carry a fairly large number of filaria, but that exact number per bite is currently unknown.

Tabanidae Commonly known as the Horse Fly[11][13][14][15][16][17] can carry more than 200 [12] L3 stage filaria in a single bite. Many people get bitten by these develop a large festering open wound that resists healing for many days or even weeks. It is very likely that a person bitten by an infected Tabanidae will develop a rather severe case of Dirofilariasis simply due to the number of L3 filaria and the amount of secretomes being generated. Its an order of magnitude more filaria than even the largest mosquito can deliver.

[1] Napoli, E., Panarese, R., La Russa, F., Cambera, I., Mendoza-Roldan, J., Otranto, D., & Brianti, E. (2022). Detection of Dirofilaria DNA and host blood-meal identification in Culicoides paolae biting midges. Parasitology, 149(7), 968-972. doi:10.1017/S0031182022000440

[2] Grandi, G., Živičnjak, T., & Beck, R. (2007). Pathogenesis of Dirofilaria spp. infections. In C. Genchi, L. Rinaldi, & G. Cringoli (Eds.), Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens in dog and cat and human infections (Issue February). https://www.esda.vet/media/attachments/2021/08/19/europe1.pdf p183

[3] Castillo, J. C., Reynolds, S. E., & Eleftherianos, I. (2011). Insect immune responses to nematode parasites. Trends in Parasitology, 27(12), 537–547. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2011.09.001

[4] Marine. (n.d.). The Black Fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) Genome and EST Project Black Fly Genome Consortium Organizing Laboratories.

[5] Fukudal1, M. (2003). NATURAL INFECTIONS WITH FILARIAL LARVAE IN TWO SPECIES OF BLACK FLIES (DIPTERA: SIMULIIDAE) IN NORTHERN THAILAND. Jpn. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 31(2), 99–102.

[6] Youssefi, M., Aminpour, A., & Arabkhazaeli, F. (2012). Dermatitis caused by the bite of Blackfly in a 32 –year old man. The Internet Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 3(2), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.5580/2467

[7] Ajayi, O. S. (2009). DERMATITIS CAUSED BY SIMULIUM (BLACKFLIES) BITE. 7(3), 151–158.

[8] Hadi, A., & Al-Amery, A. (2012). Isolation and identification of some blood parasites from midgut of stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans). J Vet Med Sci, 11(1), 28–33. http://www.qu.edu.iq/journalvm/index.php/vm_journal/article/view/166/158

[9] Baleba, S. B. S. (2021). Water immersion tolerance by larval instars of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, L1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) impairs the fitness performance of their subsequent stages. BMC Ecology and Evolution, 21(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-021-01810-z

[10] Baldacchino, F., Muenworn, V., Desquesnes, M., Desoli, F., Charoenviriyaphap, T., & Duvallet, G. (2013). Transmission of pathogens by Stomoxys flies (Diptera, Muscidae): A review. Parasite, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2013026

[11] B.D. Lessard, D. K. Y. (2010). New species of the Australian horse fly subgenus. CSIRO Entomology, Mullens, 1–18.

[12] Van Hennekeler, K., Jones, R. E., Skerratt, L. F., Fitzpatrick, L. A., Reid, S. A., & Bellis, G. A. (2008). A comparison of trapping methods for Tabanidae (Diptera) in North Queensland, Australia. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 22(1), 26–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2007.00707.x

[13] Baldacchino, F., Desquesnes, M., Mihok, S., Foil, L. D., Duvallet, G., & Jittapalapong, S. (2014). Tabanids: Neglected subjects of research, but important vectors of disease agents! Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 28, 596–615. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2014.03.029

[14] Foil, L. D. (1989). Tabanids as vectors of disease agents. Parasitology Today, 5(3), 88–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-4758(89)90009-4

[15] Keita, M. L., Medkour, H., Sambou, M., & Dahmana, H. (2020). Tabanids as possible pathogen vectors in Senegal ( West Africa ). Parasites & Vectors, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04375-w

[16] Acıöz, M. (2018). Tabanid Infestation of Cattle and Its Implications for Public Health. Middle Black Sea Journal of Health Science, 4(December), 43–46. https://doi.org/10.19127/mbsjohs.456516

[17] Spratt, D. M. (1973). Distribution of third-stage Dirofilaria roemeri (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in the tissues of tabanidae (Diptera). International Journal for Parasitology, 4, 477–480. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7519(74)90064-2